Q: discuss the following concepts in view of women rights?
Work: Equal pay for equal work is the concept of labor rights that individuals doing the same work should receive the same remuneration. It is most commonly used in the context of sexual discrimination, in relation to the gender pay gap. Equal pay relates to the full range of payments and benefits, including basic pay, non-salary payments, bonuses and allowances.
Employment: The rights of women and men to have equal pay and equal benefits for equal work were openly denied by the British Hong Kong Government up to the early 1970s. Leslie Wah-Leung Chung 1917–2009), President of the Hong Kong Chinese Civil Servants' Association (1965–68), contributed to the establishment of equal pay for men and women, including the right for married women to be permanent employees. Before this, the job status of a woman changed from permanent employee to temporary employee once she was married, thus losing the pension benefit. Some of them even lost their jobs. Since nurses were mostly women, this improvement of the rights of married women meant much to the Nursing profession
Women: UN support for the rights of women began with the Organization's founding Charter. Among the purposes of the UN declared inArticle 1 of its Charter is “To achieve international co-operation … in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.”
Within the UN’s first year, the Economic and Social Council established its Commission on the Status of Women, as the principal global policy-making body dedicated exclusively to gender equality and advancement of women. Among its earliest accomplishments was ensuring gender neutral language in the draft Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The landmark Declaration, adopted by the General Assembly on 10 December 1948, reaffirms that “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights” and that “everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, … birth or other status.”
As the international feminist movement began to gain momentum during the 1970s, the General Assembly declared 1975 as the International Women’s Year and organized the first World Conference on Women, held in Mexico City. At the urging of the Conference, it subsequently declared the years 1976-1985 as the UN Decade for Women, and established a Voluntary Fund for Decade.
In 1979, the General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), which is often described as an International Bill of Rights for Women. In its 30 articles, the Convention explicitly defines discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination. The Convention targets culture and tradition as influential forces shaping gender roles and family relations, and it is the first human rights treaty to affirm the reproductive rights of women.
Five years after the Mexico City conference, a Second World Conference on Women was held in Copenhagen in 1980. The resulting Programme of Action called for stronger national measures to ensure women's ownership and control of property, as well as improvements in women's rights with respect to inheritance, child custody and loss of nationality.
Every Woman Every Child
In the lead-up to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Summit in September 2010, the Secretary-General launched a global effortconvening 40 key leaders to define a collective strategy for accelerating progress on women's and children's health.
In 1985, the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, was held convened in Nairobi. It was convened at a time when the movement for gender equality had finally gained true global recognition, and 15,000 representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) participated in a parallel NGO Forum. The event, which many described as “the birth of global feminism”. Realizing that the goals of the Mexico City Conference had not been adequately met, the 157 participating governments adopted the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies to the Year 2000. It broke ground in declaring all issues to be women’s issues.
An early result of the Nairobi Conference was the transformation of the Voluntary Fund for the UN Decade for Women into the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM, now part of UN Women).
The Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995, went a step farther than the Nairobi Conference. The Beijing Platform for Action asserted women’s rights as human rights and committed to specific actions to ensure respect for those rights. According to the UN Division for Women in itsreview of the four World Conferences:
Gender Discrimination in access to job, work load and salary/wages: UN Women merges four UN agencies and offices into one
On 2 July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously voted to create a single UN body tasked with accelerating progress in achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment.
System-wide Action Plan
One key aspect of UN Women’s mandate is to guide the system’s coordination on gender. On 13 April 2012 a UN System-wide Action Plan(UN SWAP) on gender equality and women’s empowerment was adopted at a meeting of the United Nations Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB) to be applied throughout the UN system.
Interview on UN SWAP with the Focal Point for Women at the UN
Interview on UN SWAP with the Focal Point for Women at the UN
The new UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women – or UN Women – merged four of the world body’s agencies and offices: the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues, and the UN International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (UN-INSTRAW).
UN Women became operational on 1 January 2011.
UN Women became operational on 1 January 2011.
Eliminating Violence Against Women
The UN system continues to give particular attention to the issue of violence against women. The 1993 General Assembly Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women contained “a clear and comprehensive definition of violence against women [and] a clear statement of the rights to be applied to ensure the elimination of violence against women in all its forms”. It represented “a commitment by States in respect of their responsibilities, and a commitment by the international community at large to the elimination of violence against women”.
In 2007, the theme of the International Women’s Day was “Ending Impunity for Violence against Women and Girls”. And on 25 February 2008, Mr. Ban Ki-moon launched “The Secretary-General’s Global Campaign UNiTE to End Violence Against Women”. In opening the multi-year global campaign, he called violence against women an issue that “cannot wait”. (See also Resources for Speakers)
International Women’s Day is observed on 8 March. The theme of the 2009 observance was “Women and men united to end violence against women and girls”. The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women is observed on 25 November.
Domestic and Field work without wages: Women make up a vital part of the economic and social fabric that hold their communities together, yet that work is rarely valued at the same level as is men’s work. Much of this has to do with what opportunities are available to them. Women are disproportionately likely to be poor, under-educated, employed in low-wage or unpaid work, and subject to dismissal for getting married or having children. In many industries, female workers are systematically denied their rights to regular pay and regular working hours; equal pay for equal work; permanent contracts; safe and non-hazardous work environments; and freedom of association. Egregious abuses, including sexual violence, harassment and forced pregnancy tests, are all too common.
Moreover, the social status of women has not opened up at the same pace at which women have been brought into the workplace. They may have increasing opportunities at work, but they are prone to domestic violence and unequal expectations at home. It has become a mantra at development organizations, including the World Bank and United Nations, that investing in women is the best way to improve a range of societal concerns and that women’s full participation in society is a critical factor in economic development. But more importantly, women’s rights groups have long recognized that full equality is not possible unless women can speak out for themselves.
ILRF is committed to helping women do just that at work. We are continuing a long tradition of women pushing forward labor rights. With the Rights for Working Women Campaign (RFWW), ILRF has been at the forefront of securing fair treatment and wages for women in the global workplace. We also work with partners to help women around the world organize in industries with predominantly female workers.
Q2: Define violence and bring to light its different types. Discuss causes of violence against male and female, its effects on individual and society. What actions we should take to overcome gender violence.
Ans: "The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation."
Violence and other forms of abuse are most commonly understood as a pattern of behaviour intended to establish and maintain control over family, household members, intimate partners, colleagues, individuals or groups. While violent offenders are most often known to their victims (intimate or estranged partners and spouses, family members, relatives, peers, colleagues, etc.), acts of violence and abuse may also be committed by strangers.
Violence and abuse may occur only once, can involve various tactics of subtle manipulation or may occur frequently while escalating over a period of months or years. In any form, violence and abuse profoundly affect individual health and well-being. The roots of all forms of violence are founded in the many types of inequality which continue to exist and grow in society.
Violence and abuse are used to establish and maintain power and control over another person, and often reflect an imbalance of power between the victim and the abuser.
Violence is a choice, and it is preventable.
There are nine distinct forms of violence and abuse:
1. Physical violence;
2. Sexual violence;
3. Emotional violence;
4. Psychological violence;
5. Spiritual violence;
6. Cultural violence;
7. Verbal Abuse;
8. Financial Abuse; and,
Effects of Gender Based Violence
The effects of Gender-based violence can be devastating and long lasting. They pose danger to a woman’s reproductive health and can scar a survivor psychologically, cognitively and interpersonally. A woman who experiences domestic violence and lives in an abusive relationship with her partner may be forced to become pregnant or have an abortion against her will, or her partner may knowingly expose her to a sexually transmitted infection.
Bitangaro (1999:9) reported what a child psychologist says that “violence absolutely impacts on children…” A child who has undergone or witnessed violence may become withdrawn, anxious or depressed on one hand; on the other hand, the child may become aggressive and exert control over younger siblings.
Boys usually carry out the aggressive form of behaviour and as adults, may beat-their spouses. The effects of sexual abuse are the exploitation of power. Young people are especially at risk and this can have lasting consequences for their sexual and productive health. The costs can include unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections (STI), physical injury and trauma. Bitangaro (1999) reported that in Uganda as in many parts of the world, a lot of stigma is attached to a woman who has been raped. The effects of female Genital cutting (FGC) are many. According to the report of women vision in Uganda (1998) the surgeons, who performed the cutting are old women. These women according to the report claim that they have ancestral powers. Female genital cutting can be seen as an impediment to a girl’s sexual enjoyment. The girls according to the report of women vision (1998) are known to experience intense pain, bleeding, painful abdominal menstruation, infection or trauma.
The Population Reference Bureau (2000) reported the World Bank as saying that gender-based violence is heavy a health burden for women of ages 15-is as that posed by HIV, tuberculosis and infection during child birth, cancer and heart diseases. The fourth world conference on women has adopted a platform for action, which declares that “violence against women is an obstacles to the achievement of the objective of equality, development and peace” (Population Reference Bureau 2000:3).
Domestic violence, or intimate partner violence, is a violation of human rights. It involves violent, abusive or intimidating behaviour carried out by an adult against a partner or former partner to control and dominate that person. Domestic violence causes fear, physical and/or psychological harm. It is most often violent, abusive or intimidating behaviour by a man against a woman. Living with domestic violence has a profound effect upon children and young people and may constitute a form of child abuse. (The NSW Domestic and Family Violence Action Plan, June 2010)
The above definition includes violence in same sex relationships.
Many forms of domestic violence are offences under the NSW Crimes Act 1900 or the Crimes (Domestic and Personal Violence) Act 2007.
domestic violence can include:
· physical assault (including punching, hitting, kicking, pushing, slapping, choking, or the use of weapons)
· sexual assault (being forced to have sex or participate in sexual activities, either by watching or participating)
· emotional abuse (making you feel worthless, criticising your personality, your looks, the way you dress, constantly putting you down, threatening to hurt you, your children or your pets)
· verbal abuse (including yelling, shouting, name-calling and swearing at you)
· social abuse (being stopped from seeing friends and family, isolating you socially or geographically)
· damaging property such as furniture, the house or pets in order to threaten or intimidate you
· financial abuse (taking control of the money, not giving you enough money to survive on, forcing you to hand over your money, not letting you have a say in how it is spent).
Physical and sexual assault is a crime whether it happens in the home or on the street.
effects of domestic violence
Violence and the threat of violence at home creates fear and can destroy normal family functioning. Violence in the home also affects children. Children and young people don't have to see the violence to be affected by it.
Living with domestic violence can cause physical and emotional harm to children and young people.
Children and young people who live with domestic violence are more likely to display aggressive behaviour, experience anxiety, have reduced social skills, suffer symptoms of depression and show emotional distress.
domestic violence and children
For optimal development, children and young people need to grow up in a secure and nurturing environment. Where domestic or family violence exists, the home is not safe or secure and chilldren are scared about what might happen to them and the people they love.
Studies show that children who have witnessed domestic violence are more likely to:
· show aggressive behaviour
· develop phobias and insomnia
· experience anxiety
· show symptoms of depression
· have diminished self esteem
· demonstrate poor academic performance and problem solving skills
· have reduced social competence skills, including low levels of empathy
· show emotional distress
· have physical complaints.